Thirty-four years later, the concept of “open skies” was reintroduced by U.S. President George H.W. Bush to build trust and security between all the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. In February 1990, an open-air international conference opened in Ottawa, Canada, with the participation of all NATO Pact and Warsaw Pact countries. Rounds of negotiations were then held in Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria; Helsinki, Finland.  Outsourcing of the labour force has become a growing problem in the United States, as unemployment rates have been volatile over the past decade. That is why the United States and the EU launched the “open skies” agreement in the hope of increasing the number of jobs in the aviation industry by prohibiting the outsourcing of cheap labour. However, this agreement now has the potential to be undermined by the U.S. Department of Transportation`s decision to allow Norwegian Airline International (NAI) to take advantage of the benefits of this agreement, while breaking the defined labour code of conduct. The U.S. Transportation Authority should revoke the NAI`s authorization to fly to the United States until it complies with the standards of the Open Skies Agreement. The agreement also strengthens cooperation between the two sides in the following areas.
This treaty is not related to the open skies agreements of civil aviation.  The Irish Aviation Supervisory Authority stated that it had granted NAI permission to operate and that, therefore, the airline should be treated as an Irish airline with full right to fly in the open to the United States. The signing of the EU-US Air Transport Agreement in 2007 was a watershed moment in the air relations between the two regions, which brought together the world`s two largest air transport markets and connects more than 800 million people on both sides of the Atlantic. In 2010, a protocol amending the original agreement (called the “second phase agreement”) was signed, which significantly improved market access and regulatory cooperation. In 2011, Norway and Iceland`s accession to the EU-US Air Services Agreement was two states fully integrated into the European internal aviation market. The concept of “mutual air surveillance” was proposed to Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Bulganin at the 1955 Geneva Conference by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower; The Soviets, however, immediately rejected the concept and put several years to sleep. The treaty was finally signed in 1989 as the initiative of U.S. President (and former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency) George H. W.
Bush. The agreement negotiated by NATO members and the Warsaw Pact was signed on 24 March 1992 in Helsinki, Finland.  The United States officially withdrew on November 22, 2020.  As part of the agreement, London Heathrow was open to full competition.